Can a shorter chain overcome a longer one?


Background info:

A shorter chain could possibly be considered the correct one, but it would be very hard to make this happen in bitcoin. I can think of two ways this could happen.

1) Go back to the genesis block and use the time warp attack.

See this for information on how the timewarp attack works.

This would let the attacker create a very long chain very quickly, because the difficulty could be artificially kept low even though blocks were solved very quickly. However, this chain would not have nearly as much work as the main chain, and so even if it were longer, it would not be accepted by the network as the correct chain. It would also fail most wallets' checkpoints.

2) Two blocks are solved at the last height in a difficulty period and a network fork ensues.

If there happened to be a fork in the last block of a difficulty period, then the new difficulty for the next period would be different depending on which side of the fork you...

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The oil we find underground is called crude oil.

Crude oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons - from almost solid to gaseous. These were produced when tiny plants and animals decayed under layers of sand and mud millions of years ago.

Hydrocarbons are molecules that contain hydrogen and carbon and come in various lengths and structures, from straight chains to branching chains to rings all mixed together. These have to be separated into the different types of hydrocarbons to have anything useful.

Different hydrocarbon chain lengths all have progressively higher boiling points, so they can all be separated by fractional distillation.

Long chain – high boiling point Short chain – low boiling point

Fractional distillation takes place in an oil refinery. The difference in boiling point between a hydrocarbon of 6 carbon atom chain and one of a 7 carbon atom chain is only slight. This means that the oil is separated into groups of hydrocarbons of similar...

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While business school case studies continue to showcase the value of collaboration between ‘partner companies’, in practice, collaborative buyer/supplier relationships are far less commonplace. Supply chain collaboration initiatives can range from very basic agreements to use common packaging labels, to very close partnerships in which vendors manage all materials replenishment tasks. Unfortunately, even if you can strengthen relationships between purchasing managers & sales executives, and recognize the opportunity to simplify common procurement tasks, you still have quite a few obstacles to overcome before any initiatives will be put into action.

I have seen some of the most obviously beneficial collaboration projects fail for a variety of reasons. Usually, the people advocating for a simplified process between buyers and suppliers are those on the front lines, feeling the pain of tedious follow up tasks, redundant forms, and uncertain delivery lead...

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So I want to climb a little easier and run a 11-28 cassette. I currently have a 11-25.

Will this really make much difference, if so do I need a new longer chain as well?

It will make a difference, and no you do not need a longer chain. Needing a new one would be dependent on wear. Depends on how your chain was cut for length. Install the 11-28 cassette and on a stand, carefully shift to see if your drivetrain can still handle the biggest chainring-biggest cog (28) combination. If not, you definitely need a longer chain. Will this mean as well he might need a new rear derailleur, if he has a standard short one installed on bikes with 11-25? He should not need a new RD...It should be able to handle the chain wrap....

I swap from an 11-25 to 11-28 without any issue...

just read my bike spec has a 12-25, does that make any difference?

shifters Shimano 105

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Take a look at the final drive of any high performance racing motorcycle and you will see a chain drive.

A chain and sprocket drive offers the advantages of highly mobile rear suspension, changeable gearing and a lightweight rear hub. The chain is a very important link of the machine and if it is not maintained properly, there can be a measurable loss of performance in the final drive.

Even though we say a chain requires maintenance, the most important form of maintenance needed is simply proper application of a high quality chain lube. Friction and corrosion are a chain’s worse enemies and the cause of failure, noise and power loss. All this can be overcome with a little knowledge on chain lubrication and the right product.


In motorcycles and ATVs, there are two basic chain types: standard (non- ‘O’ ring) chains and ‘O’ ring chains. The standard chain consists of side plates, pins, bushings and rollers. The ‘O’ ring chain is identical to...

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Which TV channel to watch today with your family? Where to go out to dinner with your friends? What venue to decide to host that party with your spouse?

All these scenarios in our day to day life imply one thing. Negotiations!!

Yes, negotiations are as much a part of our daily lives as of the business. The aim or focus of these negotiations do change. The goal is always to reach a consensus among the two parties involved. The question is, how do we always come out successful out of these negotiations? How do we make negotiations fruitful and not turn them into bickering arguments? To understand this, let us dig a little deeper into the art of negotiation.

Basically, negotiations can be of only two types:

Positional negotiations are the ones where both parties take up extreme positions and then make compromises to reach a consensus. On the other hand, principled negotiations are where, the requirements of both the parties are clear, and the negotiation...

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BY Walter Last

Recently I heard an award-winning medical researcher say that steroids and immuno-suppressants as used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases have serious side effects and are not very effective (1). This reminded me of my own experiences in this area.

Initially I had only positive results. Rheumatoid arthritis, type 1-diabetes, psoriasis, myasthenia gravis, scleroderma, lupus (SLE) and other autoimmune and chronic degenerative diseases disappeared within several weeks or months. The basis of my successful approach was to put everyone on a cleansing diet of fresh raw foods.

But later I increasingly encountered patients who did not make much headway. Gradually I realized that these resistive patients commonly had systemic Candidiasis, lots of mercury amalgam fillings or root canal treatments, and often were on corticosteroids, mainly prednisone. Frequently they also had reasons why...

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