Details on Genesis Block



What you'll learn

By the end of this tutorial, you'll see the first block on the Bitcoin blockchain, created by Satoshi Nakamoto. You'll also see how Bitcoin Core stores blocks on your disk.

The Genesis Block

The first block on the Bitcoin blockchain—block 0—is called the Genesis Block. According to the timestamp in the block header, it was mined on 3 Jan 2009 at 18:15:05 UTC, although (as you'll learn) it contains more proof of work than we'd expect and the mining was only started on January 3rd.

Let's take a look at it on the disk of your computer by running the following commands:

cd ~/.bitcoin/blocks hexdump -n 255 -C blk00000.dat

The cd command changes your directory into the Bitcoin Core block data directory. The hexdump command above displays the first 255 bytes of the file. It should look like this:

00000000 f9 be b4 d9 1d 01 00 00 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 |................| 00000010 00 00 00 00 00 00 00...
0 0

Note that all hex numbers and hashes here and in the protocol are little endian. So the ones I show will look backwards from a lot of sites which show them in big endian format.

The Merkle Root

This is a way to combine all the hashes of the transaction together into 1 hash. To do this we first need the hashes of all the transactions. There is only one transaction in the genesis block so let's find its hash. This is based off of this format.

import hashlib #version 1, uint32_t version = "01000000" #1 input transaction, var_int tx_in_count = "01" #the default for generation transactions since there is no transaction to use as output OutPoint_hash = "0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000" #also default for generation transactions, uint32_t OutPoint_index = "ffffffff" previous_output = OutPoint_hash + OutPoint_index #77, var_int script_length = "4d" #The coinbase. In a regular transaction this would be the scriptSig, but unused in...
0 0

NXT is based on a 100% Proof-of-Stake model. Contrary to other cryptocurrencies that are based on Proof-of-Work (like Bitcoin and the vast majority of its derivatives) where blocks are mined and the coins are obtained as a reward, Proof-of-Stake systems require to have all the coins available from the genesis block. No new coins can be created afterwards, what this implies is that the notion of "mining" on a cryptocurrency like NXT makes no sense. The equivalent of the "mining" process in a Proof-of-Stake system is what in NXT is called "forging": as the coins move around, forgers process these transactions and all the transaction fees associated are given to the account that manages to generate the block. Blocks are generated, on average, every 60 seconds. The lack of high performance hardware and the way they differ shows that the parallelism among mining and forging is very weak, the system employed by NXT is more similar to an "interest" your coins gain. As the number of...

0 0

I am also getting this error but under different circumstances.


{ "nonce": "0x0000000000000042", "timestamp": "0x00", "parentHash": "0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000", "extraData": "0x00", "gasLimit": "0x8000000", "difficulty": "0x0400", "mixhash": "0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000", "coinbase": "0x3333333333333333333333333333333333333333", "alloc": { }, "config": { "chainId": 3141, "homesteadBlock": 0, "eip155Block": 0, "eip158Block": 0 } }

First I run geth --datadir=~/eth/data init genesis.json and it completes successfully:

WARN [05-09|14:41:01] No etherbase set and no accounts found as default
INFO [05-09|14:41:01] Allocated cache and file handles database=/home/corey/eth/data/geth/chaindata cache=128 handles=1024
INFO [05-09|14:41:02] Writing custom genesis block
INFO [05-09|14:41:02] Successfully wrote genesis state...

0 0
0 0

While cleaning up after the Scaling Bitcoin workshops in Hong Kong on Monday, Bitcoin Association of Hong Kong co-founder Leonhard Weese had the forethought to save the podium’s logo from the trash. His idea was that we could collect signatures of workshop attendees and staff and create a token of the event to be passed down in the Hong Kong Bitcoin community.

First, we marked the block with the most recently mined Bitcoin block number before asking local members of the organizing team who working hard to clean up the venue to sign the block. Next, we took the block to the closing reception at Cyberport’s The Podium and took turns carrying it around and asking workshop attendees to sign.

Video of The Genesis Block

Photos of The Genesis Block

Want to learn more about Bitcoin in Hong Kong? Join us or get in...

0 0

We have just finalised the Lisk genesis block which contains all information concerning LSK distribution. It consists of 8069 single Lisk accounts with the following distribution:

83,605,344.7663202 LSK - Validated ICO Accounts1,394,655.23363505 LSK - Unvalidated ICO Accounts4,000,000 LSK - Max’ Account4,000,000 LSK - Oliver’s Account4,000,000 LSK - Bounty Fund2,000,000 LSK - Adviser Fund1,000,000 LSK - Early Adopters Fund0.00004472 LSK - Dust

We have prepared a Google Sheet at which you can take a detailed look at the genesis block distribution. The document contains the full 100 million LSK distribution including the developers shares, the ICO participants, and all separate funds.

Please note: Those who did not validate their passphrases on the ICO website will be contacted a few days after launch. We will require a Lisk address from you in order to transfer your acquired LSK to it. The LSK associated with non validated accounts...

0 0
Block unwanted calls or number on any android with just an easy setup.

Maybe you seemed to be disturbed by nuisance calls, and you find it difficult to avoid such unwanted calls, then you're in to learn how to do that.

In this guide, I would brief you on how to completely block a number on any android, in other to avoid unwanted calls.

How to Completely Block a Number on Any Android

1. Firstly, from the app drawer of your android phone, tap on the “Phone” icon, you can also perform similar action from the main screen of your device, depending on its interface.

2. After that, you would see your call logs, then tap on the entry of the number (more like marking the number) you want to avoid calls from.

3. Once you've marked the number, then at the top corner of your android device, tap on menu, or equally click on menu button.

4. Now, select add to “reject list”.

Just in case the above procedure didn't correspond to the interface of your...

0 0

Thanks I will take a look at the video now.

This is an interesting link I found about the need for "Trusted Setup". The way they are aiming to do it seems reasonably sound to me, although I am looking for more up to date info on this issue.

My original post was wrong vis a vis the risk of de-anonymization, I think I mixed up de-anonymization in my head with the back door article I read way back. I acknowledge that is no longer an issue though (don't want you to think I'm trolling or anything ). Trusted setup is an interesting issue for the coin, I am still going through the paper but I look forward to seeing how it is addressed on launch...

0 0

Keep in mind that you need to replace yourcoin with the name of your own coin.

1. Rent a VPS running Ubuntu server.

2. Update your VPS using the following commands.

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get upgrade

3. Install the necessary dependencies using the following commands.

sudo apt-get install build-essential libssl-dev libdb-dev libdb++-dev libboost-all-dev git libssl1.0.0-dbg
sudo apt-get install libdb-dev libdb++-dev libboost-all-dev libminiupnpc-dev libminiupnpc-dev libevent-dev libcrypto++-dev libgmp3-dev

4. Download your coin daemon from My Coin.



5. Extract the tar file.

tar -xzvf yourcoin-daemon-linux.tar.gz

6. Install the daemon.

chmod +x yourcoind

0 0

Pingdom Speed Examination

Description: find out possible ways to improve the load times for with This tool will show the performance metrics for Javascript, image files and other site elements.


Description: this is one of the most popular sites online to look up domain info. With you can find detailed domain ownership records.

What is Google currently listing?

Description: what pages are currently listed by Google? Find out using the “site” query.

Google Analytics Tool

Description: see traffic flow data, bounce rates, and much more from Google analytics. See how is performing and what areas need improvement. This analysis tool developed by Google provides you with an...

0 0

I will be very interested in an "Idiots" guide, bootstrapping template, start to finish to create a DAC forking from PTS.

1.1 Use existing algorithm
1.2 Tips to ensure CPU only mining if decide to change it.
2. Set the number of shares to mine
4. How to give 10 % to both PTS holders and AGS (the document is focusing on the extraction), how do we initialise it, how the holders can easily claim their shares (as per Memory Coin). (Note I am not mentioning the genesis block, that should be part of the introduction).
5. Business Logic, example areas where we can add our business logic, ie add more information to the block chain, extract info (as per donschoe) etc.

The simpler to get started the better, I see PTS and AGS as a way to honour a very easy way to get started with your own DAC, then let the community, users decide if your business idea is good to invest. If it is everyone is a winner!

0 0

From Garaventapedia

These elevation view AutoCAD DWG drawings are for insertion into imperial drawings where one drawing unit equals one inch. They can be scaled if necessary.

For design assistance, please contact us at: 1-800-663-6556 (within the United States and Canada) or ++1-604-594-0422 or email:

90° and 180° Straight Through Configuration - Elevation View (Imperial)

Please right click the link and select "Save target as" or "save link as" to prevent opening DWG files in the browser;

360° Entry/Exit (Side Entry) and 360° Entry/Exit (Front Entry) Configuration - Elevation View (Imperial)

Please right click the link and select "Save target as" or "save link as" to prevent opening DWG files in the browser;

These AutoCAD DWG drawings are for insertion into imperial drawings where one drawing unit equals one inch. They can be scaled if necessary.

For design assistance, please contact us...

0 0