How does the network apply credit for created blocks?


First post. I must say in advance thanks to everyone for all the great conversation and help and software so far. It's really helped me get familiar with bitcoins and bitcoin mining.

I have a question about functionality of the Bitcoin network and how mining credits are applied to the correct person.

Assume a person is solo mining. That is, one computer is doing the mining. IT may be running a pool, but that's not relevant for this question. So, lets assume a solo miner generates a few blocks and they get accepted.

When the network approves a block that has been created, how is the credit for the block creation (50 bit coins, soon to be 25) applied to the miner's wallet?

Let's say that a GPU miner, like DiabloMiner is running, and getting its work from Bitcoin-QT. How does Bitcoin-QT, detect the mining credit of 50/25 bitcoins and send it to the correct miner's...

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No, no-one is paying for the solutions to the math problems. In fact, they are only math problems in the same sense that watching a Youtube video is doing a computation.

Miners are checking transactions of other users. The Bitcoin protocol is built in such a way that this process sometimes creates new bitcoins. The creation of new bitcoins is also regulated by the protocol - only 21 million can be created, and the last Bitcoin will be created around 2140. The creation of coins is distinct from the value of the coins, which come from their usefulness, supply and demand.

There is another cryptocurrency, Primecoin (XPM), which uses calculation of prime numbers in the "proof of work" process of the currency. These prime numbers do have potential scientific value, but the value of Primecoin is not linked to the value of the prime numbers. The prime numbers are publicly available, and value again comes from supply, demand and usefulness. The goal is that the computation...

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On a high level, the entire bitcoin network is built on the fact that all of the nodes are following the same rules. The rules state that whoever hashes the next block gets to mint a number of coins, so they can.

From the Bitcoin white paper:

By convention, the first transaction in a block is a special transaction that starts a new coin owned by the creator of the block. This adds an incentive for nodes to support the network, and provides a way to initially distribute coins into circulation, since there is no central authority to issue them.

From the wiki:

Bitcoins are created each time a user discovers a new block. The rate of block creation is approximately constant over time: 6 per hour. The number of Bitcoins generated per block is set to decrease geometrically, with a 50% reduction every four years. The result is that the number of Bitcoins in existence will never exceed 21...

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The 25 BTC are actually generated out of thin-air. Essentially every peer in the network knows to accept blocks where the first transaction in every block should be of maximum 25 BTC. If it's more, then the block is considered invalid. Note that these are the coins given to the miner since the miner is the one creating the block and can therefore set to which address these 25 BTC go to. Also note that 25 is not an hardcoded value, it changes with time. Again, there's another rule "programmed" into each peer where they can calculate the current reward. Currently the maximum allowed is 25, but every certain amounts of blocks, peers know that the value needs to be halved - it was originally 50 BTC, now it's 25, next it will be 12.5.

So to answer your question, peers collectively know that the rule is to generate coins out of thin air every so often, and the person that gets them is the person that mined the block. You might be asking: what if a dishonest peer changes the 25 BTC...

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If you’d like to limit what apps a user can run on a PC, Windows gives you two options. You can block the apps you don’t want a user to run, or you can restrict them to running only specific apps. Here’s how to do it.

NOTE: Be absolutely sure that you are making changes to a user account you actually want to restrict, and that you always have an unrestricted administrative account available to undo those changes. This is especially true if you are restricting users to a specific set of apps, as those users will lose access even to tools like Registry Editor and Local Group Policy Editor. If you do accidentally apply restrictions to your administrative account, the only way we’ve found to reverse the changes is to run System Restore by going to Settings > Update & Security > Recovery and clicking the “Restart now” button under Advanced Startup. From there, you can find the setting for running System Restore after a restart, since you won’t be able to run System...

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What I would like to do is to completely block two computers on my home network from accessing the Internet during a given time of day.

So say we got a computer A, a computer B and a computer C. We want to allow computer B and computer C to access the Internet (the WAN side of the network) from 07:00 to 16:00. From 16:00 to 07:00 we don't want these two computers accessing the Internet, at all! At the same time, we want computer A to have Internet access all the time.

What do I need to create this kind of rule? Do I need a home server (I'm thinking in the terms of domain controller, etc.)? Can I do this in the router of the network?

Please note that I am not looking for a way to restrict access to certain web sites. I want to completely block Internet access for a given computer (s) during a given time of day.

One solution that comes to my mind is "parental control" feature that many anti-virus software suits have. But I feel that this method is...

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This article is a gentle introduction to blockchain technology and assumes minimal technical knowledge. It attempts to describe what it is rather than why should I care, which is something for a future post.

Shorter companion pieces to this are:


People use the term ‘blockchain technology’ to mean different things, and it can be confusing. Sometimes they are talking about The Bitcoin Blockchain, sometimes it’s The Ethereum Blockchain, sometimes it’s other virtual currencies or digital tokens, sometimes it’s smart contracts. Most of the time though, they are talking about distributed ledgers, i.e. a list of transactions that is replicated across a number of computers, rather than being stored on a central server.

The common themes seem to be a data store which:

usually contains financial transactions is replicated across a number of systems in almost real-time usually exists over a peer-to-peer network uses cryptography...
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I am so tired by some types of the YouTube videos my kids are watching all day. I decided to restrict YouTube videos based on Keywords in my home network. I thought it should be really easy. What a big mistake. It turns out to be a serious challenge and me end up blocking YouTube altogether (kicking out my own access as well). In my journey to my goal, I learned a lot and decided to put it out to help others who may also be looking for the solution like me. This article is divided into several sections to help you understand the reasons for specific questions. Stay tuned and keep reading!

Fact: After a lot of struggle, I came to the conclusion that there is no way we can block YouTube videos using keywords. For example, if you want to block all YouTube videos that have Pippa-pig in the title, there is a no way to do that.

Therefore, we can either block YouTube or not. You cannot block it selectively. Of course, a specific video URL can be blocked but not based...

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PayPal Credit is an open-end credit plan offered by Comenity Capital Bank (the "Lender"). By using PayPal Credit to complete a purchase, you apply for credit and agree you have read the Terms and Conditions, including the Agreement to Arbitrate, as well as the Privacy Policy; and authorize the Lender to review your credit report. You authorize parties with whom you make a purchase to share your personal information, including email address, with the Lender to use that information for any lawful purpose.

The Terms and Conditions of PayPal Credit include the following:

*Including Agreement to Arbitrate. You can choose to reject the Agreement to Arbitrate as further explained in Section 19 below.

PayPal Credit Important Disclosures

The information that follows includes important information about the cost of credit and the interest rates. Your Promotional Purchase terms may vary from what is below. Please see the terms presented at the time of your...

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How do I access my credit card through electronic services?

If you are the primary CIBC credit cardholder, you will have direct access to your credit card account through Online Banking, Telephone Banking and any CIBC Instant Teller machine. You can access only those accounts for which you are the primary cardholder.

Primary credit cardholders who do not hold a CIBC bank account will have inquiry-only access through CIBC Credit Card Online. Primary cardholders who also hold a CIBC bank account will be able to initiate cash advances, transfers, and payments.

The funds in your credit card account are accessible in-branch, by bank machine, Telephone Banking and Online Banking. Cash advances (including an advance from a credit card account to a bank account) accumulate interest from the date they are taken.

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How do I add an additional cardholder to my credit card?

As the primary credit cardholder, you can have an...

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What is Firewall Network rule parameters: How to create a network rule for application

1. What is Firewall

All network connections on your computer are monitored by Firewall. Firewall assigns a specific status to each connection and applies various rules for filtering of network activity depending on that status, thus, it allows or blocks a network activity. Firewall works based on rules of two types: packet rules and rules for applications.

Packet rules have a higher priority compared to the application rules. If both packet rules and application rules are applied to the same type of network activity, this network activity will be processed using the batch rules. Packet rules are used in order to restrict packets transfering regardless applications.

Back to the contents

2. Network rule parameters


While creating a network rule you can specify an action performed by Firewall if it detects the network...

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I am mining for the pool but the wallet still shows INVESTOR and 0 magnitude. Is that ok?

That is perfectly normal, when pool-mining you do work for the pool's account and as a reward get transactions from the pool for the work you did. Because of this you do not work for your own CPID and have no magnitude.

I am mining for the pool but even though I work on projects this is not shown on the profile page of the pool. What can I do?

Make sure you remove all existing projects from the BOINC manager before syncing to the pool. Then you can add new projects from the page of the pool (

I have connections but the number of blocks does not increase. What can I do?

If you have connections you should be fine and the wallet will sort itself out.

The reason for this is most likely that you have to resend your beacon, which should be done every 6 months. For this either unlock your wallet so that it sends automatically...

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In this chapter, you learn about the following topics:

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The open nature of the Internet makes it vital for businesses to pay attention to the security of their networks. As companies move more of their business functions to the public network, they need to take precautions to ensure that the data cannot be compromised and that the data is not accessible to anyone who is not authorized to see it.

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Your CCR username will not work in SAM. You will need a new SAM User Account to register or update your entity records. You will also need to create a SAM User Account if you are a government official and need to create Exclusions or search for FOUO information.

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All entity records from CCR/FedReg and ORCA and exclusion records from EPLS, active or expired, were moved to SAM. You can search these records and new ones created in SAM. If you are a government user logged in with your SAM user account, you will automatically have access to FOUO information.


The System for Award Management (SAM) is an official website of the U.S. government. SAM consolidated the capabilities of CCR/FedReg, ORCA, and...

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Confused by some of the terms used on CoinDesk? Here you will find a complete bitcoin 101 that will help you to understand digital currency by explaining commonly used terms and their meanings.

51% attack

A condition in which more than half the computing power on a cryptocurrency network is controlled by a single miner or group of miners. That amount of power theoretically makes them the authority on the network. This means that every client on the network believes the attacker’s hashed transaction block. This gives them control over the network, including the power to:

Issue a transaction that conflicts with someone else's. Stop someone else's transaction from being confirmed. Spend the same coins multiple times. Prevent other miners from mining valid blocks.


A bitcoin address is used to receive and send transactions on the bitcoin network. It contains a string of alphanumeric characters, but can also be represented as a scannable QR code....

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