How frequent are side-chain reorganizations of various lengths?


Recently BlockStream released a teaser about an innovative new technology called “pegged sidechains” that would allow public ledgers of various cryptocurrencies to transfer between multiple blockchains. The whitepaper describing this new technology has just been released by BlockStream today. The white paper describes the central idea, its implementation requirements and the things that need to be done to get the most benefit from fully implemented interconnected blockchains.

“We propose a new technology, pegged sidechains,” reads the abstract, “which enables bitcoins and other ledger assets to be transferred between multiple blockchains.” It continues:

“This gives users access to new and innovative cryptocurrency systems using the assets they already own. By reusing Bitcoin’s currency, these systems can more easily interoperate with each other and with Bitcoin, avoiding the liquidity shortages and market fluctuations associated with new currencies.


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Your node doesn't know for sure. Actually, nobody ever knows for sure that the current chain-tip will be in the chain with the most work, it just becomes increasingly likely as more time passes and additional blocks build on-top.

Once a sufficient number of blocks have been built on top of the observed block, it will be sufficiently unlikely that the observed block will end up in a stale chain-tip, and you can trust it.

Users make different judgment calls about the number of blocks they wait for: some don't wait for another block and accept at first confirmation, some wait three blocks, some require six. The extreme is likely to be the 100 block waiting period the network requires before mining rewards may be spent.

However, until proven wrong, the node will assume that he has the newest information: after all finding a block is an unlikely event, and thus will respond with information about his block when queried for the...

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Let's say someone creates a blockchain fork starting from the genesis block, when the difficulty was absurdly low compared to today; then he starts mining new blocks from there up to the current block index.

Normally, this would require such an amount of time to make it completely impossibile to catch up with the real blockchain; even if he used today's powerful mining hardware, the difficulty increase would compensate for it quickly. But, here's the catch: he customizes his mining software to not ever increase the difficulty, even if it's mining hundreds of blocks per second; block timestamps are simply faked in order to make it seem they were generated at ~10 minutes interval.

When the fake blockchain is longer then the real one (currently ~300000 blocks), he starts broadcasting it; it appears to conform to all rules, and it's longer than the current one, thus all clients and miners treat this as a winning fork and switch to working on it. Of course, difficulty...

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For its fancy sounding name and esoteric roots, sidechain compression is an extremely simple studio technique both in principle and practice. What is sidechain compression? Basically, it is the same as ordinary audio compression except that it uses another audio source as its input, and then uses the resulting gain reduction on the destination audio track. The most common application of this method is in the ubiquitous ‘ducking’ or ‘pumping’ effect heard peppered throughout just about every dance track recorded in the last 15 years. This effect is achieved by using the kick drum as the sidechain input, which then sends the resulting gain reduction to, usually, a sustained sound on another track like a pad, chord, or noise loop.

Using sidechain compression is all about finding out how your particular setup supports it. Some plugins (most compressors) support sidechaining but you have to find a switch or two to flip before it is activated. First, there will be a button...

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Track Name: World Demise Persuade us betray us
Not gonna fucking break us
Resisting world's depravation
We are the chosen nation

Persuade us betray us
Not gonna fucking break us
Resistance on it's feet
Will end all this deceit

Manipulation and control
Distrust is taking hold
Come hear the doomsday toll

Stop faking stop taking
Confront the shit they're making
Don't believe their bitter lies

It's time take back our lives

Stop taking stop faking
Confront the shit they're making
Forget your illusions
Receive absolution

Manipulation and control
Distrust is taking hold
Come hear the doomsday toll

Confront our lies false image in our minds
Blind are following the blind
Distort our thoughts no responce
This fucking rage has made us whole

Rise Up!

Resistance on its feet
Will end all this...

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Corporations reorganize and restructure for various reasons and in numerous ways. The bottom line usually is, well, the bottom line. Companies reorganize to increase profits and improve efficiency. The reorganization of a company typically addresses the efficiency component in an attempt to increase profits. It's not unusual for a corporation to reorganize on the heels of changes at the top. A new CEO often sees reorganization as a cure for a company's ills, and companies sometimes hire a new leader based specifically on his vision for reorganization.

Reorganization Reasons

Corporate reorganization normally occurs following new acquisitions, buyouts, takeovers, other forms of new ownership or the threat or filing of bankruptcy, according to the Thinking Managers website. The VC Experts website reports that reorganizations involve major changes in a corporation's equity base, such as converting outstanding shares to common stock or a reverse split --- combining a...

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Learn Cubase online with Berklee:

In this free online Cubase tutorial, Berklee College of Music faculty member and Berklee Online course author and instructor Ross Ramsay demonstrates creative use of the side-chain in Cubase 7.

About Berklee Online:
Berklee Online is the continuing education division of Berklee College of Music, delivering online access to Berklee's acclaimed curriculum from anywhere in the world, offering online courses, certificate programs, and degree programs. Contact an Academic Advisor today:
1-866-BERKLEE (US)
1-617-747-2146 (international callers)

About Ross Ramsay
James Ross Ramsay, faculty in the Piano department at Berklee College of Music, has been teaching piano for 25 years, and has been included in the "Who's Who List of American Teachers" several times. He composes...

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