Is it true the genesis block reward can't be spent forever? [duplicate]


There is no technical constraint causing the genesis block's reward to be unspendable forever.

It is a bug that has now become the accepted standard. In the future the genesis block reward could be spent but clients must be updated to fix this bug or they will reject blocks containing a valid input referring to this transaction (4a5e1e4baab89f3a32518a88c31bc87f618f76673e2cc77ab2127b7afdeda33b).

Other clients outside of bitcoind, like btcd, also mimic this bug so they don't risk a fork if Satoshi ever decided to spend these coins. Seeing that Satoshi isn't around much fixing this bug isn't exactly a priority and there is a good chance that this might never be...

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I've read through


. I think I understand the technicalities behind it.

Some altcoins based on older Bitcoin source code manually insert the genesis block transaction upon startup, as seen here:

This specific altcoin duplicates what is already in in order to be successful. However, there is another example, here

It looks like it's doing the same thing but without the duplication in code, am I correct?

According to the comments made in, newer version of the Bitcoin source code...

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It is important, because it is used to seed the block and chain databases before syncing can occur (you need a block to build on). It's the root of the tree of blocks, forks, and ultimately the chain tips that represent the chains your software is tracking.

It is imported differently to others, as it's coinbase transaction is not included in the UTXO set (it's unavailable to be spent)

Changing the genesis block is a way to definitively fork yourself away from the bitcoin blockchain, ie, start a new network with it's own separate history.

However, some coins do share a common genesis block (Fluttercoin IIRC, shares Litecoins for whatever reason), but the network is forked by the use of checkpoints (genesis might be the same, but block 1 is checkpointed to Fluttercoins, instead of...

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Bitcoin is the currency of the Internet: a distributed, worldwide, decentralized digital money. Unlike traditional currencies such as dollars, bitcoins are issued and managed without any central authority whatsoever: there is no government, company, or bank in charge of Bitcoin. As such, it is more resistant to wild inflation and corrupt banks. With Bitcoin, you can be your own bank.

If you are new to Bitcoin, check out We Use Coins and You can also explore the Bitcoin Wiki:

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Security guide for beginners - (WIP)

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Do not use URL shortening services: always submit the real link. Begging/asking for bitcoins is absolutely not allowed, no matter how badly you need the bitcoins. Only requests for donations to large, recognized charities are allowed, and only if there is good reason to believe that the person...
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0. Only Trust the Source

The source code, and not this file, is the only true definition of the block rewards. That source file is located here in [master]:

1. Reward Schedule

Eventually 1,000,000,000 LBRY credits will exist. They are awarded on the following schedule:

The genesis block creates 400,000,000 credits to be administered by LBRY, Inc. 300,000,000 of these will be strategically allocated to partners, many of whom have a direct interest in the naming layer. It also includes 100,000,000 earmarked for charity. Additionally, some may be given directly to the public in ways that add value and make sense. 100,000,000 are owned by LBRY directly.

The remaining 600,000,000 are mined in 3 stages:

The first stage goes from block 1 to block 5100, and will take roughly 9 days. Every block in this stage has a reward of 1 credit. This is the testing stage, to ensure...

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One of the annoyances of the blockchain as a decentralized platform is the sheer length of delay before a transaction gets finalized. One confirmation in the Bitcoin network takes ten minutes on average, but in reality due to statistical effects when one sends a transaction one can only expect a confirmation within ten minutes 63.2% of the time; 36.8% of the time it will take longer than ten minutes, 13.5% of the time longer than twenty minutes and 0.25% of the time longer than an hour. Because of fine technical points involving Finney attacks and sub-50% double spends, for many use cases even one confirmation is not enough; gambling sites and exchanges often need to wait for three to six blocks to appear, often taking over an hour, before a deposit is confirmed. In the time before a transaction gets into a block, security is close to zero; although many miners refuse to forward along transactions that conflict with transactions that had already been sent earlier, there is no...

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This question already has an answer here:

Why does PHP consider 0 to be equal to a string? 6 answers How do the PHP equality (== double equals) and identity (=== triple equals) comparison operators differ? 19 answers $vartest = 0; if ($vartest == "This can't be TRUE") { echo "But it is TRUE"; } >> But it is TRUE

By mistake I made a wrong declaration somewhere in my program, and discovered this strange behaviour.

I used $vartest = “” most of the time, but somewhere $vartest = 0 slipped into the program.

Because I spent hours to find the error I’m posting this just for awareness.

Just one question. The variable $vartest is empty, but why does PHP find this TRUE ?

Answer 1

You had to compare on equality and type with "===" and not only with "==" for equality with typeconversion. Try this:

$vartest = 0; if ($vartest === "This can't be TRUE") { echo "But it...
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51% Attack

Consider this concept as sort of a “hostile takeover” of a cryptocurrency; it's possible in theory, but most industry experts doubt it's very likely. The process of mining blocks of digital currency data often takes considerable computing time and energy. It's conceivable that a miner or mining pool could expend the computing resources necessary to control more than 50% of the total computing power devoted to the currency's network, and once they have majority control, they could “take over” and do some damage. For example, they could reverse current and new transactions, and could keep new data blocks and currency from being created. They would create more of an interruption than anything else, but they would not be able to “steal” currency or hack other investors' accounts.

Gaining more than 50% of a digital currency network's computing time would take a lot of energy and computers, which in and of itself would be very expensive. Additionally, that...

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A. Thoughts to begin with as we study the Bible.

1. We come to the Bible knowing there is a God.

a. There are many good and strong philosophical and logical reasons to believe in God. Yet the Bible does not make elaborate arguments for the existence of God. However, it does tell us how we can know God exists.

b. The Bible tells us we can know God exists because of what we see in the created world.

i. The heavens declare the glory of God; and the firmament shows His handiwork. Day unto day utters speech, and night unto night reveals knowledge. There is no speech nor language where their voice is not heard. Their line has gone out through all the earth, and their words to the end of the world. (Psalm 19:1-4)

ii. For since the creation of the world His invisible attributes are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even His eternal power and Godhead, so that they are without excuse. (Romans 1:20)

c. This is an example of...

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Although the features of our eternal home will be incredible, Steve Ham, AiG–U.S., explains the most glorious, yet often overlooked aspect of our future.

And there shall be no more curse, but the throne of God and of the Lamb shall be in it, and His servants shall serve Him. (Revelation 22:3)

Today’s big question: what is the reward for true believers?

We often talk of heaven when we think about the ultimate reward for true believers, and it is easy to romanticize this subject. I have heard it described as a place where we will see our long-lost departed relatives, friends, and spouses. Some describe it as the place where there is no death or sickness and everything is perfect. There is truth in both of these statements. If our departed loved ones had saving faith in God, then they will be in heaven, and the Bible does reveal there will be no death, sin, or sickness in heaven (Revelation 21:4).

Heaven is truly a great reward, yet thinking of being there often...

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