What new transactions are possible with 15 operations?


It's not exactly "15 operations"...

The Bitcoin address is not really a public key, but a special script that is built from special commands. From those commands you could build really weird transactions, for example the ones mentioned here, that lock funds on an address that can be accessed only if someone manages to break SHA2.

Up until now the miners treated anything besides the basic four or so script kinds as non-standard. It meant that you could add them to the blockchain (because they are valid), but only if you mine them yourself, or convince one of the pools to add them to the block.

Thanks to the relaxed rules, you will be able to create transactions that are redeemable by almost any script built from commands listed here: https://en.bitcoin.it/wiki/Script . As long as they don't contain more than 15 signature checks.

The biggest potential use case for this is probably in oracles / smart contracts, as explained in Gavin's bit-thereum post. Our...

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The most important point about Hibernate and concurrency control is that it is easy to understand. Hibernate directly uses JDBC connections and JTA resources without adding any additional locking behavior. It is recommended that you spend some time with the JDBC, ANSI, and transaction isolation specification of your database management system.

Hibernate does not lock objects in memory. Your application can expect the behavior as defined by the isolation level of your database transactions. Through Session, which is also a transaction-scoped cache, Hibernate provides repeatable reads for lookup by identifier and entity queries and not reporting queries that return scalar values.

In addition to versioning for automatic optimistic concurrency control, Hibernate also offers, using the SELECT FOR UPDATE syntax, a (minor) API for pessimistic locking of rows. Optimistic concurrency control and this API are discussed...

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This week, we’ve invited Ofir Beigel to guest blog for us. We’ll let him take it from here.

Recently, scaling bitcoin has been a hot topic for the bitcoin community. Why is this? Well, as bitcoin grows and more users hop onboard, a big priority is to ensure the network can efficiently handle the increasing transaction volume. And lately, many users have been expressing their worries over transaction delays caused by network congestion. In this post I’m going to talk a bit about how transaction confirmations work, and the role that fees play in the process.

Miners, bounties, and newly-generated bitcoins

In order to understand transaction confirmations, we’ll need to cover some key concepts of bitcoin mining. I won’t attempt to explain the whole process of bitcoin mining in this post, but I’ll try to simplify the process with this short explanation. Every day hundreds of thousands of transactions are sent and received on the bitcoin network. These transactions need to...

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Identify the most commonly used BW transactions for Planning and Consolidation for Netweaver (BPC NW) 7.5 and 10, and a brief explanation of their usage. It is aimed at BPC users that may be new to BW administration.

BW transction codes are technical names, with a commonly ambiguous combination of letters. When the transaction is opened, a menu item or ABAP program is initiated. This list contains the most useful BW transactions, when using and supporting BPC NW. The list expands on the note in the 'related content', by providing a description and screenshot (please click the thumbnail to enlarge) of each transaction. The reader will require a basic understanding of how to operate BW. Many steps do not include full step-by-step instructions, and some interpretation of the options presented may be necessary.

Each transaction is run by inputting the transaction code (t-code) in the input box at the top-left corner of SAP GUI.

If this box is not...

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Lanfear, I have come across the same error message and I found a solution. Your situation may be different, but I hope that the following knowledge will be useful to you.

System.Transactions.Transaction.Current.TransactionInformation.Status will return the status of the current transaction.

In each case where an exception is thrown with the message The operation is not valid for the state of the transaction, when I step thru with the debugger, I see that the status is "Aborted" before the exception is thrown.

In my case, the problem was caused by nesting two transactions inside each other and mistakenly aborting both when I wanted to abort only one. Apparently, if you use the TransactionScope default constructor New TransactionScope() with two nested transactions, aborting the inner transaction aborts the outer transaction as well. The solution is to use the Constructor New TransactionScope(TransactionScopeOption.RequiresNew) Using this constructor, the inner...

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The uncontrolled execution of concurrent transactions in a multi-user environment can lead to various problems. The three main problems and examples of how they can occur are listed below:

Lost Updates
This problem occurs when two transactions, accessing the same data items, have their operations interleaved in such a way, that one transaction will access the data before the other has applied any updates.

In this simplified example, you can see that the operations are interleaved in such a way that Transaction 2 had access to the data before Transaction 1 could reduce the seats by 1. Transaction 2's operation of reducing the seats by 2 has been overwritten, resulting in an incorrect value of available seats.

This violates the Serializability property which requires that the results of interleaving must leave the database with the same results as serial processing. It also violates the Isolation property of allowing a...

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A session is a container for a sequence of transactions. Sessions borrow connections from a pool as required and so should be considered lightweight and disposable. In languages where thread safety is an issue, a session should not be considered thread-safe.

In languages that support them, sessions are usually scoped within a context block. This ensures that they are properly closed and that any underlying connections are released and not leaked.

Example 4.13. Session

public void AddPerson(string name) { using (var session = Driver.Session()) { session.Run("CREATE (a:Person {name: $name})", new {name}); } }public void addPerson(String name) { try ( Session session = driver.session() ) { session.run("CREATE (a:Person {name: $name})", parameters( "name", name ) ); } }const session = driver.session(); session.run('CREATE (a:Person {name: $name})', {'name': personName}).then(() => { session.close(() => { console.log('Person...
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This is a .net ORM Mapper Framework from Microsoft to help you talking with your Database in an object oriented manner. Wikipedia

Database Transaction

A database transaction, by definition, must be atomic, consistent, isolated and durable. Database practitioners often refer to these properties of database transactions using the acronym ACID. Transactions in a database environment have two main purposes:

To provide reliable units of work that allow correct recovery from failures and keep a database consistent even in cases of system failure, when execution stops (completely or partially) and many operations upon a database remain uncompleted, with unclear status. To provide isolation between programs accessing a database concurrently. If this isolation is not provided, the program's outcome are possibly erroneous. Wikipedia

.NET Transactions

A .NET Transaction can be used in different ways by different frameworks to support...

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Transaction processing is a style of computing that divides work into individual, indivisible operations, called transactions.[1] A transaction processing system (TPS) or transaction server is a software system, or software/hardware combination, that supports transaction processing .


The first transaction processing system was SABRE, made by IBM for American Airlines, which became operational in 1970. Designed to process up to 83,000 transactions a day, the system ran on two IBM 7090 computers. SABRE was migrated to IBM System/360 computers in 1972, and became an IBM product first as Airline control Program (ACP) and later as Transaction Processing Facility (TPF). In addition to airlines TPF is used by large banks, credit card companies, and hotel chains.

The Hewlett-Packard NonStop system (formerly Tandem NonStop) was a hardware and software system designed for Online Transaction Processing (OLTP) introduced in 1976. The systems were designed...

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The yum history command enables users to review information about a timeline of yum transactions, the dates and times they occurred, the number of packages affected, whether these transactions succeeded or were aborted, and if the RPM database was changed between transactions. Additionally, this command can be used to undo or redo certain transactions. All history data is stored in the history DB in the /var/lib/yum/history/ directory.

To display a list of the twenty most recent transactions, as root, either run yum history with no additional arguments, or type the following at a shell prompt:

yum history list

To display all transactions, add the all keyword:

yum history list all

To display only transactions in a given range, use the command in the following form:

yum history list start_id..end_id

You can also list only transactions regarding a particular package or packages. To do so, use the command with a package name or a glob...

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This chapter describes how Oracle Database processes Structured Query Language (SQL) statements. Topics include the following:

Overview of SQL Statement Execution

Figure 5-1 outlines the stages commonly used to process and execute a SQL statement. In some cases, these steps might be executed in a slightly different order. For example, the DEFINE stage could occur just before the FETCH stage, depending on how your code is written.

For many Oracle tools, several of the stages are performed automatically. Most users do not need to be concerned with, or aware of, this level of detail. However, you might find this information useful when writing Oracle Database applications.

Identifying Extensions to SQL92 (FIPS Flagging)

The Federal Information Processing Standard for SQL (FIPS 127-2) requires a way to identify SQL statements that use vendor-supplied extensions. Oracle Database provides a FIPS flagger to help you write portable...

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Federal Human Resources Office
(J1/Manpower & Personnel)

The Federal Human Resources Office (J1/Manpower & Personnel Directorate) provides personnel support services for the Air National Guard and the Army National Guard. This encompasses the full-time Active Guard Reserve(AGR) and Federal and State Civil Service/Technicians, both "dual status" (excepted or affiliated with the military) & "non-dual status" (competitive) employees.

The J1/Manpower & Personnel Directorate at the Department of Miitary Affairs is comprised of three main areas: AGR Branch, Technician Support Branch and State Personnel Division. The programs we support are: Diversity, EEO, Labor Relations and ESGR.

Go online to change your technician benefits!

Beginning 1 October 2010, the National Guard transition to the Employee Benefits Information System (EBIS)/Interactive Voice Response System (IVRS) serviced by the Army Benefits Center-Civilian...
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